Circumcision is a common procedure with minimum risks of complications by trained professional doctors. There are different opinions whether there is a need for a male to be circumcised.
Many medical studies and research showed that boy under 1 year is an optimal time for clinical circumcision. In our experience ideal age of circumcision is in babies under 4 weeks because a baby’s low movement facilitates the use of local anesthesia, usually sutures are not required, healing is quick, cosmetic outcome is usually excellent, costs are minimal in this age group (ranges from £250) , and risks of complications are uncommon. Infant circumcision is safe, simple, convenient and cost-effective procedure.
The benefits of infant circumcision include prevention of urinary tract infections (a cause of renal scarring), reduction in risk of inflammatory foreskin conditions such as balanoposthitis, foreskin injuries, phimosis (tight foreskin) and paraphimosis ( foreskin stuck behind the head of penis)
When the men later becomes sexually active he has substantial protection by circumcision against risk of HIV and other viral sexually transmitted infections such as genital herpes and oncogenic human papillomavirus, as well as penile cancer. The risk of cervical cancer in his female partner(s) is also reduced.
Tight foreskin in adolescence or adulthood may evoke a fear of pain, sexual pain or reduced sexual pleasure. Tight foreskin may be due Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) which may required circumcision. Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) is a penile skin condition which affects the foreskin, It may also affect the rounded head of the penis (called the ‘glans penis’) and, less commonly, the urethra (the tube which carries the urine from the bladder out of the body).
In BXO there is long term (chronic) inflammation of the glans penis; referred to as ‘balanitis’. Patches (called lesions) appear on the affected skin which have an abnormally dry appearance (referred to as ‘xerotica’) and are seen as white, thickened plaques. Lesions start in the foreskin but then can extend to the surface of the skin on the glans penis causing the involved areas of skin to fuse together. As a result, the foreskin can become firmly adhered to the glans so retracting the foreskin (pulling it back) becomes difficult or impossible. This is called phimosis. Issues or concerns passing urine, painful erection and tight foreskin.
In summary, circumcision is the procedure which can be done under anesthesia with minimum risks of complications by professional trained doctors.
Ref: surgical guide for circumcision 2012 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-2858-82